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Prof. Oelze from the University of Illinois has developed a novel technique of processing ultrasound images which will improve the spatial resolution by a factor...
Prof. Oelze from the University of Illinois has developed a novel technique of processing ultrasound images which will improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 6.9 (at least) over the diffraction limited approaches. It will also provide significant noise reduction.
Dr. Boppart from the University of Illinois has developed new computational algorithms to improve Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This will provide...
Dr. Boppart from the University of Illinois has developed new computational algorithms to improve Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This will provide surgeons with a better view of cancerous tissue and allow improved treatment of numerous diseases.
CT scanners are gathering more data than ever, far exceeding the ability of the hardware and software to process and analyze the data and consequently slowing down...
CT scanners are gathering more data than ever, far exceeding the ability of the hardware and software to process and analyze the data and consequently slowing down diagnosis. This is becoming a more serious issue as the field moves from fan-beam (2-D and spiral) to cone-beam (fast volumetric or 3-D) acquisition. These algorithms were developed to address this problem. This suite of patented and patent-pending algorithms reconstructs tomographic images for standard (i.e., 2-D) and volumetric (i.e., 3-D) CT scans 10 to 100 times faster than conventional methods for typical image sizes, lowering scanning costs, increasing throughput, enabling improved image quality, and freeing up precious computer resources.
Fast Hierarchical Backprojection Method for Imaging
This method involves backprojecting a sinogram to a tomographic image by subdividing it into subsinograms corresponding to subimages as small as a single pixel. The subsinograms are backprojected to produce corresponding subimages, and the subimages then are aggregated to create the full tomographic image. As with several of the algorithms described above, speed is greatly enhanced through the use of an approximate decomposition algorithm.
Fast Hierarchical Backprojection for 3-D Radon Transform
With this method, data from a 3-D sinogram are backprojected to form a 3-D volume. An input sinogram is subdivided into subsinograms, which are further subdivided until they represent volumes as small as a single voxel. The subvolumes then are aggregated to form a final volume. Again, this algorithm combines an accurate but slow subdivision algorithm with a faster but less accurate subdivision algorithm, reaching an accurate result quickly.
Fast Hierarchical Native Fan-Beam Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithms
This family of native divergent beam algorithms can be used to reconstruct all divergent-beam tomographic data, including single- and multi-slice 2-D fan-beam and 3-D cone-beam with arbitrary scan trajectories, including single circle and spiral trajectories for short and long objects. The algorithms operate directly on the data without prior rebinning to parallel beam projections. Both reprojection and backprojection functions are available.
Multilevel Domain Decomposition Method for Fast Reprojection of Images
The method involves decomposing an image into one or more subimages, reprojecting the subimages into sinograms (i.e., arrays of numbers), scaling the sinograms, and aggregating the subimage sinograms into a single sinogram of the entire image.
Fast Hierarchical Reprojection Algorithm for Tomography
This variation on the above reprojection method combines an exact algorithm, which is accurate but slow, with an approximation algorithm, which is less accurate but fast, to create an accurate result in a short time.
Fast Hierarchical Reprojection Algorithm for 3-D Radon Transforms
This algorithm is based on 3-D radon transform, which is a mathematical model used in volumetric imaging. It begins by dividing the 3-D image into subvolumes as small as a single voxel. These subvolumes then are reprojected at various orientations to form subsinograms. The subsinograms are then successively aggregated and processed to form a full sinogram for the initial volume. Like the previous algorithm, this technology combines a highly accurate slow subdivision algorithm with a faster but less accurate subdivision algorithm to quickly obtain an accurate result.
Qualified companies are invited to license the algorithms as well as enter into agreements that will allow evaluation and suitable modifications to the algorithms that may be necessary for use in specific applications.
Industrial Imaging: By reconstructing tomograms faster than do previous methods, these algorithms dramatically increase the number of items that can be scanned per hour (i.e., throughput), eliminating the "image reconstruction bottleneck" and significantly reducing manufacturing/ inspections costs. These algorithms can be used with any industry inspection using CT scans:
Security Imaging: The faster imaging speeds enabled by these algorithms will offer dramatic improvements in 3-D CT inspection of baggage or containers for the detection of weapons, explosives, or other hazardous materials. This will be a tremendous benefit as U.S. airports strive to meet new federal baggage inspection requirements.
Researchers and practitioners in university, industrial and national labs increasingly rely on low temperatures in the development and study of products. For...
Researchers and practitioners in university, industrial and national labs increasingly rely on low temperatures in the development and study of products. For example, pharmaceutical companies routinely use low temperatures to study disease targets and markers.
The biomolecules are always in buffers. Since the pH of buffers changes dramatically upon lowering temperature, the biolmolecules are not the same pH when they are at the room temperature. The change of pH can dramatically change the structural and functional properties of the biomolecules so that information obtained at low temperature does not reflect its properties at room temperature or physiological temperature. Additionally, since the exact pH buffer at different temperatures is not often predictable, the results obtained using a temperature variable pH buffer cannot easily correlate back to the pH at room temperature.
This invention is a new design of pH buffers that show negligible pH change upon cooling to low temperatures, including cryotempatures. This invention solves the problem of significant change in apparent pH of a glycerol solution of common biological buffers upon cooling to cryotemperature. By combining a buffer that increases pH upon cooling with one that decreases pH upon cooling, the apparent pH change upon cooling to cryotemperature is minimized.
Advanced molecular imaging tools combined with investigative tools like biochemical and cell based assays have thepotential to unravel complex molecular processes...
Advanced molecular imaging tools combined with investigative tools like biochemical and cell based assays have thepotential to unravel complex molecular processes. These tools combined with high throughput screening can significantly impact diagnostics for cancer screening and accelerate drug discovery. These inventions are two new Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensor pairs, one composed of two new colors, mOrange2 and mCherry and the other composed of a modified high-sensitive ECFP/YPet pair that can significantly enhance the dynamic range of a variety of biosensors. The ECFP/YPet can detect signaling events with high spatio-temporal resolutions which makes it an ideal readout indicator for high throughput screening.
FRET technology and genetically encoded FRET biosensors are very useful in detecting active molecular events inlive cells with high temporal and spatial resolutions. FRET occurs when two flurophores are in proximity with the emission spectrum of the donoroverlapping with the excitation spectrum of the acceptor. To date, the most popular FRET pair is cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (CFP and YFP).
The new FRET biosensor pairs mOrange2/mCherry are proteins with different colors and spectrally distinctive from the CFP/YFP pair. This invention opens up the possibility of lighting two diagnostic biomarkers in the same cell e.g., cancer cells, thus providing a double criterion high-fidelity assay to differentiate cancer vs. normal cells.
To provide proof-of-concept that mOrange2 and mCherry are suitable as novel FRET biosensors, they were operably linked to the protein recognition sequence of MMP-MT1. MMP-MT1 is an enzyme belonging to the matrix metalloproteinase family that has known roles in cancer metastasis. The basis of this assay is that when MT1-MMP is inactive, the mCherry and mOrange2 and positioned in proximity and favor a strong FRET between the two moieties. Indeed, in-vitro assays established that the mOrange/mCherry pair can serve as a reliable and sensitive indicator of the status of MT1-MMP activation and can potentially be applied to other biomarker assays.
The ECFP/YPet pair provides a high-sensitive biosensor for the visualization of molecular hierarchy at different subcellular locations inlive cells. In-vitro assays revealedthat the ECFP/YPet pair exhibits significantly enhanced dynamic range of the MT1-MMP biosensor compared to currently available CFP/YFP FRET pairs. When quantified, the ECFP/YPet pair showed a 570% change (% change in basal level upon stimulation of MT1-MMP) when compared to only 90-100% in existing FRET pairs. The ECFP/YPet pair has also been successfully applied to other classes of proteins, like kinases, that are important therapeutic targets in human cancer.
These and other genetically engineered biosensors can serve as a research tool to monitor different signaling cascades in live mammalian cells with high sensitivity. The developed MT1-MMP biosensor and potentially other protein biosensors can provide a powerful tool for the spatiotemporal imaging of protein functions in cancer development e.g. detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Furthermore, these biosensors can serve as an excellent high-throughput reporting system forthe detection of cancer and the development of inhibitors for cancer therapeutics.
The novel mOrange2/mCherry pair presents a method to simultaneously visualize two active signaling events in the same cell when combined with existing FRET pairsThe ECFP/YPet pair can serve as a high-sensitive biosensor with significantly enhanced dynamic ranges compared to existing CFP/YFP FRET pairs. The ECFP/Ypet pair can be operably linked to any protein recognition sequence to detect activity of that protein in live cells. The pair also includes a positively charged tag which allows 100% efficiency ofdetection. This invention demonstrates an ECFP/Ypet pair operably linked to MT1-MMP, a tumor metastasis biomarker, to accurately detect circulating tumor cells in blood samples.
Cancer researchers are focusing their efforts on identifying central pathways that trigger or enhance the invasiveness of tumor cells. One such target is EMMPRIN (...
Cancer researchers are focusing their efforts on identifying central pathways that trigger or enhance the invasiveness of tumor cells. One such target is EMMPRIN (Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer). It has been shown that EMMPRIN expression is linked to various cell signaling pathways that lead to an increase in tumor cell vascularization. Researchers are focusing efforts on elucidating the role of EMMPRIN in a number of disorders including cancer, arthritis, tissue repair and numerous inflammation-dependent diseases. DESCRIPTION/DETAILS Basigin is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily thatis also known as EMMPRIN. Human basigin is expressed as two differentiallyspliced isoforms encoded by a single gene found on chromosome, renamedrespectively as basigin-1 and basigin-2. Attempts to demonstrate specifichemophilic on separate cells, or between soluble forms of recombinant basiginusing surface Plasmon resonance have not been successful, suggesting thatbasigin-2 cannot function as a receptor for itself. In order to identify possible receptors for soluble basiginligand, an affinity purification approach was employed. This approach resulted inthe labeling of several potential interacting proteins, and MALDI MS/MSsequencing of one of these proteins identified a novel isoform of human basigin(basigin-3).
Immunoprecipitation studies using cell fractions revealed thatrBSG interacts with basigin-2 at the cell membrane, and subsequently interactswith the basigin-3 isoform within the cell. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)knockdown of basigin-2 protein reduced, but did not eliminate, rBSG-mediatedERK activation in HESCs, suggesting that additional cell surface receptors forsoluble basigin may exist. Taken together, these results support the hypothesisthat basigin-2 can function as a receptor for soluble basigin and demonstratethat the hemophilic interactions between basigin proteins are not dependentupon glycosylation of the basigin ligand. It has also been shown that soluble EMMPRIN binds tomembrane-bound EMMPRIN and the bound complex is internalized presenting apotential means to deliver therapeutic compounds to the cell in a highlytargeted manner. A therapeutic scheme isproposed that aims to design EMMPRIN-conjugates designed to deliver cancertherapeutics in a targeted fashion.
Conjugation oftherapeutics to EMMPRIN increases specificity and targets cancers cells cancer (skin, bladder,breast); other inflammatory diseases (arthritis, endometriosis); Upregulationof inflammatory response.
It is possible to design therapeutic agents directed toward human basigin. Possible therapeutic scheme to block tumor progressionor inflammation.
Current super-resolution microscopy techniques require special laser setups and fluorescent molecules (such as PALM and STORM) that allow the fluorophores to be...
Current super-resolution microscopy techniques require special laser setups and fluorescent molecules (such as PALM and STORM) that allow the fluorophores to be turned on and off so that only a small number of fluorophores are turned on at any time. With the Super Shrimp image analysis algorithm, super-resolution images can be created from images with high densities of fluorophores. The invention creates microscopy images that have 5 or more times better resolution than standard microscopy images while using the standard microscopic set up available in most laboratories. It allows use of any fluorescent molecule (including quantum dots) that blinks or photobleaches to pick fluorophores out of the fluorescent background, and it can work with thousands of fluorophores in an image.
This image analysis algorithm can localize quantized drops in fluorescence even with a background to create super-resolution images from standard photobleaching movies. It does not require special photo-switchable fluorophores (PALM, STORM) or fluorophores with long-lived dark states (dSTORM). The data acquisition is accomplished in minutes instead of hours and it can use standard laboratory microscopic set up with any fluorescent molecule. The algorithm processes a movie in which fluorescent molecules or particles are photobleaching or blinking and looks for individual photobleaching events that can be located with high resolution (i.e. the position of the fluorescent molecules). A composite image with resolution much higher than the original movie can then be generated.
Noise is reduced by rejecting fluorophores that are poorly fit by a Gaussian and frames are averaged.
The image analysis algorithm to create super-resolution images using standard photobleaching and blinking movies provides the following benefits:
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a method of stain-free chemical imaging to highlight the morphology and molecular content of biological...
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a method of stain-free chemical imaging to highlight the morphology and molecular content of biological samples without the use of any stains or dyes. The tissue is computationally recreated as if it were stained and imaged in diagnosis of biological samples. This method improves the cost and efficiency by avoiding expense and lessening the time required to complete multiple stains. Also, it improves the overall consistency of the staining process.
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a method for selectively derivatizing complex natural molecules such as Amphotericin B. The technology...
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a method for selectively derivatizing complex natural molecules such as Amphotericin B. The technology could allow for greater regio-control over current synthetic methods.
University of Illinois researchers have identified a new use for hand-held glucose meters to detect a variety of new disorders. By measuring the concentration of a...
University of Illinois researchers have identified a new use for hand-held glucose meters to detect a variety of new disorders. By measuring the concentration of a certain cofactor, the glucose meter can correlate the reading to other non-diabetes diseases.