Photonic crystal (PC) sensors, and sensor arrays and sensing systems incorporating PC sensors are described which have integrated fluid containment and/or fluid handling structures. The PC sensors are further integrated into a sample handling device such as a microwell plate. Sensors and sensing systems of the present disclosure are capable of high throughput sensing of analytes in fluid samples, bulk refractive index detection, and label-free detection of a range of molecules, including biomolecules and therapeutic candidates. The present disclosure also provides a commercially attractive fabrication platform for making photonic crystal sensors and systems wherein an integrated fluid containment structure and a photonic crystal structure are fabricated in a single molding or imprinting processing step amendable to high throughput processing.
Biosensors based on one- or two-dimensional photonic-crystal reflectance filters operating at near-ultraviolet wavelengths. The biosensors feature a tightly confined resonant electric field at the surface of this biosensor and provide a high surface-sensitivity to bulk-sensitivity ratio, enabling enhanced detection resolution for biomolecules adsorbed on the biosensor surface. These new biosensors can be fabricated in mass by replica molding and are especially well suited for applications requiring the detection of small molecules or ultra-low analyte concentrations.
A biosensor based upon a vertically emitting, distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The DFB laser comprises a replica-molded, one- or two-dimensional dielectric grating coated with a laser dye-doped-polymer as the gain medium. A sensor is also described in which the grating layer and the active layer are combined into a single layer. DFB lasers using an inorganic or organic thin film with alternating regions of high and low index of refraction as the active layer are also disclosed. The sensor actively generates its own narrowband high intensity light output without stringent requirements for coupling alignment, thereby resulting in a simple, robust illumination and detection configuration.