Non-Diagnostic Hardware/Software/Medical Devices
These technologies provide biodegradable bone implants and artificial bone matrices for bony tissue repair. They encompass: (1) a method for creating organoapatite...
These technologies provide biodegradable bone implants and artificial bone matrices for bony tissue repair. They encompass: (1) a method for creating organoapatite (artificial bone) matrices on surgical metal implants, as well as the matrix materials themselves, and (2) a biodegradable polymer matrix for use in bone tissue repair. Both types of material provide immediate tissue treatment or repair, while allowing and encouraging natural repair processes and cell growth to occur gradually. They degrade to biocompatible substances and/or naturally occurring metabolites.
These technologies encompass a biodegradable, synthetic polymer for use as a tissue repair matrix, as well as a novel preparatory method for depositing organoapatites onto surgical metal alloys used in implants. The organoapatite matrix materials are included, as well. Both of these types of matrices are designed to promote natural tissue repair processes, following implantation, and to degrade, in situ, to physiologically and biochemically compatible compounds.
Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymer Matrix
This novel material is designed to have a lipophilic binding moiety covalently coupled to a hydrophilic tissue adhesion moiety via a divalent linker comprising either a natural metabolite or a polymer biodegradable into a metabolite. The preparation of these polymers, as well as their use in formulating implant matrices for tissue treatment and repair, is provided as well. Preferred polymers are prepared using a lipophilic alcohol or amine to initiate polymerization of one or more cyclic esters of hydroxyl acids. The resulting polyester is then covalently linked to a polyionic group, via one of several linker moieties. The composition of the matrices can vary from viscous liquid to molded solid, based on its chemical constituents and molecular weights. Specific, preferred matrices exhibit self-assembly, characteristic of liquid crystal compositions, and impart a unique matrix structure and function, with localized, ordered domains. Such domains possess temperature-dependent order, enabling liquid-solid transitions as a function of temperature (i.e., solidifying from a pre-implant liquid to a post-implant solid or liquid crystal). Polymers used in implant compositions degrade after implantation, providing a temporary template for cell growth and localized release of any contained bioactive additives. For tissue repair, the matrix is gradually replaced by endogenous tissue.
In addition to being biodegradable, this innovative technology provides a unique matrix structure with localized domains. This property, coupled with its unique molecular structure affords significant potential for making implants with highly improved functionality. In addition, the liquid crystal nature of these matrices enables temperature-dependent ordering, i.e., the ability to change from liquid to solid following a change in temperature from slightly above-normal to normal body temperatures. The implant matrix composition can be used alone or can also contain an effective amount of a bioactive adjuvant (or cells) for tissue treatment/repair. The natural surfactant action of these amphiphilic, biodegradable matrices serves a tissue wetting/adhesive function; this, along with the ordered molecular arrangement, enhances cell growth and tissue regeneration at the implant site.
Methodology for Deposition of Organoapatites onto Surgical Metal Alloys
Organoapatites can be created by a serial treatment process, wherein a porous metal implant (typically a metal alloy) is immersed in a solution of a charged poly(amine)(s), followed by immersion in a second solution of a second, charged poly(amine)(s), whose charge is opposite that of the first poly(amine) (i.e., poly(lysine) (+) followed by poly(glutamate) (-)). The second polyamine solution may be the poly(amine) alone or in combination with apatite-forming constituents. These steps allow an insoluble, polyionic organic complex to form on the alloy, which serves as a type of scaffold for the subsequent, stable precipitation of apatites onto the coated alloy. The apatite-synthesizing step involves a ratio- and rate-controlled addition of solutions of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid to the final poly(amine) solution containing the metal alloy. Organoapatite precipitation occurs onto the alloy within minutes to hours. Following precipitation, the coated alloy is removed, rinsed twice, and vacuum dried, prior to use.
Current methods aim to improve the rate of bone osseointegration in cementless systems, either by applying highly crystalline calcium phosphate to porous metal implants, or inserting bone allografts or reconstituted bone at the metal/bone interface. While inviting bone growth, the former method consists of a brittle, ceramic phase that is not fully resorbed and requires a high processing temperature that degrades the mechanical properties of the metal substrate. The latter methods, especially those using synthetic bone materials, are not sufficiently like natural bone in microstructure and/or composition, and bone growth rates are not effectively improved. This technology provides a method for growing fully (or at least partially) resorbable, synthetic bone on the surface of a porous metal implant that can be used to stimulate cellular activity and bone growth, with replacement (at least in part) by natural bone tissue.
Below the knee muscle weakness, defined by weak dorsiflexor (shin) or plantarflexor (calf) muscle groups, can result from a variety of physical impairments or...
Below the knee muscle weakness, defined by weak dorsiflexor (shin) or plantarflexor (calf) muscle groups, can result from a variety of physical impairments or congenital abnormalities. Stroke, spinal cord injuries, polio and multiple sclerosis are among some of the physical injuries and congenital defects responsible for the condition. The largest complication from below the knee muscle weakness is abnormal gait, which when compensated for can lead to further complications in other muscles and joints.
Ankle-foot-orthoses (AFOs) have been designed to assist afflicted individuals in walking and rehabilitation of the weakened muscle groups. Unfortunately, many commercially available AFOs are passive devices that cannot provide assistance during the propulsive phase of gait. Furthermore, these instruments are not capable of adapting to changes in walking conditions. Powered AFOs have been engineered to overcome these limitations but lack practicality in that they are commonly tethered to off-board power sources.
This technology provides a non-tethered, portable pneumatic powered AFO that controls and assists propulsion of the foot as well as ankle motion using plantarflexor and dorsiflexor torque at the ankle joint.
A custom-built pneumatic rotary actuator is located at the ankle joint. Torque generated by the actuator is used for both motion control of the foot and to provide supplemental torque for the individual during gait. Pressure regulators are used to manage the force produced by the rotary actuator and valves are used to direct the flow of fluid power to the actuator. Control and sensing of the actuator is accomplished through use of pressure and angle sensors and onboard electronics.
This device can be used to aid individuals afflicted with below the knee muscle weakness or impaired gait resulting from any number of physical injuries or congenital disabilities. Portability of the device permits the device to be used in a variety of locations. Applications include:
The portable pneumatic AFO is beneficial compared to passive AFOs in that it:
Benefits over other powered AFOs include:
Dr. Bashir has developed a walking biological machine. This "bio-bot" can move spontaneously, and may be useful for sensing, information processing, transport,...
Dr. Bashir has developed a walking biological machine. This "bio-bot" can move spontaneously, and may be useful for sensing, information processing, transport, protein expression and actuation applications.
Dr. Rashid Bashir has developed a process for manufacturing modular bioactuators. The process utilizes stereolithographic 3D printing to create injection...
Dr. Rashid Bashir has developed a process for manufacturing modular bioactuators. The process utilizes stereolithographic 3D printing to create injection molds for cell/hydrogel cultures and for skeletal scaffolds for the actuators. The resulting ring-like actuators can then be manually placed on the scaffold. This introduces a modular design that is customizable and transferable. These actuators are also triggered optogenetically and exhibit directional motion and 2D steering.
University of Illinois and Mayo Clinic have come up with a software tool that will revolutionize the Artificial Intelligence Healthcare...
University of Illinois and Mayo Clinic have come up with a software tool that will revolutionize the Artificial Intelligence Healthcare sector and the time when a computer might tell you what medicines to take is not far away. This invention can be used to predict efficacy of a drug on individual patients, predict future health complications and suggest patient specific therapy, and explain how a drug functions and why it doesn't respond.
Related publications include Data Driven Longitudinal Modelling and Prediction of Symptoms Dynamics in Major Depressive Disorder: Integrating Factor Graphs and Learning Methods and model-based unsupervised learning informs metformin-induced cell-migration inhibition through an AMPK-independent mechanism in breast cancer
Researchers from University of Illinois have advanced the field of robotic surgery by introducing haptic feedback based on the 3D point cloud reconstruction technique. The...
Researchers from University of Illinois have advanced the field of robotic surgery by introducing haptic feedback based on the 3D point cloud reconstruction technique. The point cloud can be seen in the display and the doctor receives a feedback if the tip of the tool touches any unexpected region or with too great a force. The application has great potential since a small mistake can lead to death due to excessive bleeding.
Dr. Li from the University of IL has developed PEG gel and PDMS networks that have mechanophore’s embedded in them and has developed a method of using Ultrasound technique...
Dr. Li from the University of IL has developed PEG gel and PDMS networks that have mechanophore’s embedded in them and has developed a method of using Ultrasound technique to activate the mechanophores. The invention would be useful for non-invasive procedures and allow for stimulation of neurons by illuminating the mechanophore with ultrasound waves.
Researchers from the University of Illinois and Clemson have developed highly rare earth doped optical fiber. This optical fiber . This optical fiber contains a high...
Researchers from the University of Illinois and Clemson have developed highly rare earth doped optical fiber. This optical fiber . This optical fiber contains a high concentration of Yb. In the highly doped Yb fiber, At high rare earth (Yb) concentrations, Yb no long radiates light and optical pumping power is efficiently converted into thermal energy. The highly Yb doped fiber forms the basis of an efficient micro heating element. This micro heating element has the potential for use as a micro cauterization tool.
Drs. Eden, Boppart and Nguyen from the University of Illinois have developed a microplasma-integrated otoscope for non-invasive treatment of chronic ear infections....
Drs. Eden, Boppart and Nguyen from the University of Illinois have developed a microplasma-integrated otoscope for non-invasive treatment of chronic ear infections. Compatible with commercial otoscopes, this technology enables microplasma treatment of antiobiotic-resistant inner ear biofilms associated with recurrent ear infections with a standard medical instrument.
The otoscope specula are fitted with microchannels that deliver oxidizing microplasma to the biofilm in the middle ear, rendering it susceptible to antibiotic treatment that is otherwise ineffective. This method of treatment circumvents the need for invasive surgical procedures.
Otology, Therapeutic Device
Prof. Bhargava has developed a digital method for identifying areas of early stage tumor and distinguishing them from benign population in breast cancer lesions. This...
Prof. Bhargava has developed a digital method for identifying areas of early stage tumor and distinguishing them from benign population in breast cancer lesions. This highly accurate artificial intelligence method can assist pathologists to interpret biopsies in breast cancer screening, increasing their efficiency and accuracy. About a million breast biopsies are performed in the US, out of which quarter receive a cancer diagnosis. The remaining patient cases are categorized by pathologists according to a diagnostic spectrum ranging from benign to preinvasive diseases which are difficult to classify. Misclassification can contribute to over treatment or undertreatment of lesions causing serious health and financial repercussions. Precise stratification of the lesions will reduce under or over diagnosis and time in breast cancer diagnosis.
This digital toolbox will be of interest to both health care clinics for risk stratification and early detection and digital pathology companies as a translatable diagnostic suite.