Direct Nanoscale Patterning of Metals Using Polymer Electrolytes


Electrochemical fabrication platforms for making structures, arrays of structures and functional devices having selected nanosized and/or microsized physical dimensions, shapes and spatial orientations. Methods, systems and system components use an electrochemical stamping tool such as solid state polymeric electrolytes for generating patterns of relief and/or recessed features exhibiting excellent reproducibility, pattern fidelity and resolution on surfaces of solid state ionic conductors and in metal. Electrochemical stamping tools are capable high throughput patterning of large substrate areas, are compatible with commercially attractive manufacturing pathways to access a range of functional systems and devices including nano- and micro-electromechanical systems, sensors, energy storage devices, metal masks for printing, interconnects, and integrated electronic circuits.