Dr. JJ Cheng from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a helix/random confirmation switchable antimicrobial polypeptides (HRS-AMPs) that are pH sensitive and can kill Helicobacter pylori. H pylori, a causative agent of gastric ulcers, lives in the acidic environment of the stomach, and these pH activated antimicrobial peptides could be used to kill H pylori. The polypeptides are inactive until reaching the stomach, thus preserving the microbiota of the rest of the GI tract. In vivo data demonstrates good biodistribution, bioavailability, efficacy, and low toxicity compared to standard treatment for H. pylori infection. Moreover, HRS-AMPs are active against MDR and clinical isolate strains.