An amphiphilic substance includes a hydrophobic group, and a polynucleotide group attached to the hydrophobic group. The polynucleotide group includes a first polynucleotide segment and a second polynucleotide segment. The first and second polynucleotide segments are at least partially complementary and are bound together by interactions including base pairing. At least one of the first and second segments includes at least one of an aptamer and a nucleic acid-based enzyme. A lipid vesicle may include the amphiphilic substance, a first polar lipid that is an unstable vesicle former, and a polar liquid. Upon exposure to a rupture agent, the vesicle may rupture, releasing the contents of the vesicle. Substances that may be released from the vesicle include bioactive agents, such as drug agents.