An apparatus and methods for characterizing the response of a particle to a parameter that characterizes an environment of the particle. A change is induced in the parameter characterizing the environment of the particle, where the change is rapid on a timescale characterizing kinetic response of the particle.
The response of the particle is then imaged at a plurality of instants over the course of a period of time shorter than the timescale characterizing the kinetic response of the particle. The response may be detected by measuring a temperature jump or by measuring correlation and anticorrelation between probe parameters across pixels.
More particularly, the particle may be a molecule, such as a biomolecule, and the environment, more particularly, may be a biological cell. The parameter characterizing the environment of the particle may be a temperature, and change may be induced in the temperature by heating a volume that includes the particle, either conductively or radiatively. The volume may be heated by means of a laser, such as an infrared laser, for example, or by microwave heating.
This technology produces highly spatial and temporally resolved microscopic images of induced relaxation dynamics through the combination of microscopy with a temperature jump in materials and biosystems under observation.
Compatible with a variety of microscopy techniques, the technology allows for fast and controlled temperature change. Initiation of dynamics can also be achieved in a variety of systems, including chemical, physical, and biological systems.
This technology can be applied to the observation of real-time temperature dynamics inside living cells. Compared to current options in the market, the technology is cheaper to produce and better for observing the aforesaid conditions.