Kyle Smith has improved current flow channel designs by integrating the flow channel inside of the electrode. This enables his design to improve current electrode performance by a factor of 1000. Furthermore, Dr. Smith has improved the shape and arrangement of his flow channels by arranging them in a hierarchical fashion and creating a cube-root shape. This results in an optimized and improved flow channel that makes the electrodes much more permeable than current designs. Effectively, these electrodes can now have a flow with very low amounts of pressure required.