In-Situ Simultaneous Actuation and Displacement Sensing with Electrostatic Actuators Using Amplitude and/or Phase Modulation


An electrostatic drive includes a first electrode and a second electrode responsive to a drive signal. The drive signal includes an actuation signal constituent and a sensing signal constituent. The sensing signal constituent is at a frequency higher than a natural mechanical resonant frequency of the electrostatic drive. In response to the actuation signal constituent, displacement between the first electrode and the second electrode changes, which is evaluated by detecting a change in an electrical characteristic of the drive as a function of the sensing signal constituent.