Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases. Exaggerated or prolonged TLR activation leads to pathological inflammation and other diseases. Despite the need, there are no small-molecule drugs clinically available against TLR pathways. This may be due to the significant signaling complexity of TLR signaling mechanisms. Dr. John Katzenellenbogen and a team of researchers have developed a novel class of inhibitors capable of inhibiting TLR signaling. These compounds have the potential to treat various inflammatory diseases.