Dr. Rashid Bashir has developed a process for manufacturing modular bioactuators. The process utilizes stereolithographic 3D printing to create injection molds for cell/hydrogel cultures and for skeletal scaffolds for the actuators. The resulting ring-like actuators can then be manually placed on the scaffold. This introduces a modular design that is customizable and transferable. These actuators are also triggered optogenetically and exhibit directional motion and 2D steering.